Three key developments from the 20th International AIDS Meeting

Nature Newsblog - 5 hours 7 min ago

Posted on behalf of Erika Check Hayden. 

The run-up to the 20th International AIDS Meeting, scheduled to wrap up on 25 July in Melbourne, was overshadowed by news that a three-year-old child once thought to be cured of HIV still harbors the virus — and by the horrific crash of Malaysian Airlines flight 17, which claimed the lives of six conference delegates.

Here Nature rounds up three major cure stories that unfolded at the conference.

1. HIV establishes secure hiding places from the immune system extremely early after infection — a huge obstacle to developing a cure for HIV infection, scientists say. Researchers reported in Nature on 20 July that monkeys treated starting three days after infection with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) appeared to be free of virus after two years. But after treatment was stopped, the virus escaped from its hiding places, or “reservoirs,” and the infections resurged in the monkeys.

2. Still, finding a way to eliminate such reservoirs seems the only way to a cure, and scientists reported a degree of progress in this direction on 22 July. A team from Aarhus University in Denmark used a cancer drug called romidepsin to re-activate dormant HIV  in six infected patients. HIV then surged to detectable levels in five of the patients. The next step in this “kick and kill” strategy is to find a way to eliminate the resurgent virus and the cells that produce it — perhaps by using a therapeutic vaccine to boost the patients’ immune systems.

3. Other researchers are testing gene therapy to cure HIV — for instance, by modifying immune cells so that they become resistant to the virus. A team at the University of New South Wales in Australia is examining whether inducing lab-grown cells to make proteins that target HIV can block infection. Another Australian group infused HIV-infected cells with molecules that prevented cells from becoming activated by drugs such as romidepsin. This raises the possibility of a strategy that reverses the “kick and kill” approach: it would prevent resting cells from leaving their dormant state. Neither strategy is yet being tested in patients, but against this week’s suite of dispiriting news, they offer a reminder that the HIV cure field is far from exhausting all options.

Categories: General, News

Genetic study shows major impact of climate change on Antarctic fur seals

Biology News - Wed, 2014-07-23 17:34

Genetic analysis of Antarctic fur seals, alongside decades of in-depth monitoring, has provided unique insights into the effect of climate change on a population of top-predators. Published in Nature this week, the findings show that the seals have significantly altered in accordance with changes in food availability that are associated with climate conditions. Despite a shift in the population towards 'fitter' individuals, this fitness is not passing down through generations, leaving the population in decline.

Categories: Biology News, General

New book list, July 9, 2014

Ernst Mayr Library Blog - Thu, 2014-07-10 14:03

Animal science reviews 2010.
Edited by David Hemming. Wallingford, Oxfordshire; Cambridge, MA : CABI, c2011. HOLLIS# 012901204
SF61.A55 2011

Animals of West Africa.
By G. S. Cansdale. London, Longmans, Green, [1946]. HOLLIS# 014105714
QL337.W4 C25 1946

Biology of aging.
By Roger B. McDonald. New York: Garland Science, [2014]. HOLLIS# 014105504
QH608.M33 2014

Borneo writing and related matters.
Edited by Tom Harrisson [and Benedict Sandin]. Kuching: Sarawak Museum, 1966. HOLLIS# 004644739
GN635.B6 B67 1966

Cambro-Ordovician studies V.
Edited by John R. Laurie, John R. Paterson & Glenn A. Brock. Canberra: Association of Australasian Palaeontologists, 2014. HOLLIS# 014107614
QE726.C363 2014

Checklisten der Fauna Österreichs. No. 7, Ciliophora.
By Erna Aescht. Herausgegeben von Reinhart Schuster; Serienherausgeber Hans Winkler & Tod Stuessy. Wien: Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, 2004- HOLLIS# 009696223
QL261.C44 2004 no. 7

Deep metazoan phylogeny: the backbone of the tree of life, new insights from analyses of molecules, morphology, and theory of data analysis.
Edited by J. Wolfgang Wägele, Thomas Bartholomaeus. Boston: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co. KG, [2014]. HOLLIS# 014019852
QH367.5.D445 2014

Dōbutsu no kokoro. [Japanese translation of Animal minds].
By Donald Griffin. Tōkyō: Seidosha, 1995. HOLLIS# 014105716
QL785.G71517 1995

Djuren på skansen.
Stockholm: Nordiska Museet, 1930. HOLLIS# 014105713
QL606.55.S73 J48 1930

Ecology and conservation of tropical marine faunal communities.
By K. Venkataraman, C. Sivaperuman, C. Raghunathan, editors. Heidelberg; New York: Springer, [2013]. HOLLIS# 013934531
QL309.E26 2013eb [e-book]

The evolution of human intelligence: proceedings of workshop.
Foundation for the future. Bellevue, WA: The Foundation, c2000. HOLLIS# 014105715
GN281.4.F68 2000

The glaciers of the Alps & Mountaineering in 1861.
By John Tyndall. London: J.M. Dent & Co.; New York: E.P. Dutton & Co., 1906. HOLLIS# 003179135
DQ823.T95 1906

The Global Taxonomy Initiative: documenting the biodiversity of Africa: proceedings of a workshop held at the Kirstenbosch National Botanical Garden, Cape Town, South Africa (27 February–1 March 2001).
Editors R.R. Klopper, G.F. Smith & A.C. Chikuni Pretoria: National Botanical Institute, 2001. HOLLIS# 008855357
QH77.A35 G56 2001x

A guide to Mexican mammals & reptiles.
By N. Pelham Wright. [2d ed.]. México: Editorial Minutiae Mexicana, c1970. HOLLIS# 014105718
QL722.W75 1970

Handbook of anatomy: being a complete compend of anatomy, including the anatomy of the viscera, a chapter on dental anatomy, numerous tables, and incorporating the newer nomenclature adopted by the German Anatomical Society, generally designated the Basle nomenclature, or BNA.
By James K. Young. 6th rev. ed. Philadelphia: Davis, 1929, c1923. HOLLIS# 001047386
QM28.Y75 1929

Handbuch der Paläoherpetologie. Encyclopedia of paleoherpetology. Part 3A2.
Hrsg. von Oskar Kuhn, unter Mitarbeit von R. M. Appleby [et al.]. Stuttgart, New York, G. Fischer, 1969- . HOLLIS# 000676119
QE861.H3 1969 Pt. 3A2

Handbook of meta-analysis in ecology and evolution.
Edited by Julia Koricheva, Jessica Gurevitch, and Kerrie Mengersen. Princeton: Princeton University Press, [2013]. HOLLIS# 013714721
QH541.15.S72 H36 2013

An introduction to the study of insects.
[By] Donald J. Borror [and] Dwight M. De Long. New York, Rinehart, [1954]. HOLLIS# 014105709
QL463.B69 1954

Microbe hunters.
By Paul De Kruif. New York: Blue Ribbon Books, c1926. HOLLIS# 001397684
QR31.A1 D41 1926

On the origin of autonomy: a new look at the major transitions in evolution.
By Bernd Rosslenbroich. Cham [Switzerland]; New York: Springer, [2014]. HOLLIS# 014072543
QH371.5.R67 2014

Paleonutrition: method and theory in prehistoric foodways.
By Elizabeth S. Wing, Antoinette B. Brown. New York: Academic Press, c1979. HOLLIS# 000976877
GN407.W56 1979

Review of the proposal for the Gulf long-term follow-up study: highlights from the September 2010 workshop: workshop report.
By Lynn Goldman, Abigail Mitchell, and Margie Patlak, editors. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press, c2010. HOLLIS# 012735422
GC1221.R485 2010eb [e-book]

Studies on fossil and recent cephalopods.
Wissenschaftliche Redaktion: Björn Berning & Alexander Lukeneder; [Herausgeber: Oberösterreichisches Landesmuseum, Gerda Ridler]. Linz: Oberösterreichisches Landesmuseum Linz, 2014. HOLLIS# 014105697
QE806.S78 2014

Through space & time.
By James Jeans. New York: Macmillan; Cambridge: University Press, c1934. HOLLIS# 014105712
Q162.J42 1934

Wild creatures: a pageant of the untamed.
Text by Franklin Russell; photos. by Anthony Bannister … [et al.] ; photos. assembled and edited by Milton Rugoff and Ann Guilfoyle. New York: Simon and Schuster, [1975]. HOLLIS# 014105719
QL46.R87 1975

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