Scientists find possible neurobiological basis for tradeoff between honesty, self-interest

Eureka Alert! - 9 hours 55 min ago
(Virginia Tech) A team of scientists from the Virginia Tech Carilion Research Institute and the University of California at Berkeley used advanced imaging techniques to study how the brain makes choices about honesty.
Categories: Eureka Alert!, General

Migrating birds sprint in spring, but take things easy in autumn

Eureka Alert! - 9 hours 55 min ago
(Springer) Passerine birds, also known as perching birds, that migrate by night tend to fly faster in spring than they do in autumn to reach their destinations. This seasonal difference in flight speed is especially noticeable among birds that only make short migratory flights, says researcher Cecilia Nilsson of Lund University in Sweden, in Springer's journal Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology.
Categories: Eureka Alert!, General

War between bacteria and phages benefits humans

Eureka Alert! - 9 hours 55 min ago
(Tufts University, Health Sciences Campus) In our battle with cholera bacteria, we may have an unknown ally in bacteria-killing viruses known as phages. Researchers from Tufts University and elsewhere report that phages can force cholera bacteria, even during active infection in humans, to give up their virulence in order to survive.
Categories: Eureka Alert!, General

Exceptionally well preserved insect fossils from the Rhône Valley

Eureka Alert! - 9 hours 55 min ago
(PeerJ) In Bavaria, the Tithonian Konservat-Lagerstätte of lithographic limestone is well known as a result of numerous discoveries of emblematic fossils from that area (for example, Archaeopteryx). Now, for the first time, researchers have found fossil insects in the French equivalent of these outcrops -- discoveries which include a new species representing the oldest known water treader.
Categories: Eureka Alert!, General

Researchers find Asian camel crickets now common in US homes

Eureka Alert! - 9 hours 55 min ago
(North Carolina State University) With their long, spiky legs and their propensity for eating anything, including each other, camel crickets are the stuff of nightmares. And now research from North Carolina State University finds that non-native camel cricket species have spread into homes across the eastern United States.
Categories: Eureka Alert!, General

Surprising new role for calcium in sensing pain

Eureka Alert! - 9 hours 55 min ago
(Duke University) When you accidentally touch a hot oven, you rapidly pull your hand away. Duke researchers have made a surprising discovery in worms about the role of calcium in such pain signaling. They have built a structural model of the molecule that allows calcium ions to pass into a neuron, triggering a signal of pain. These discoveries may help direct new strategies to treat pain in people.
Categories: Eureka Alert!, General

Discovery hints at why stress is more devastating for some

Eureka Alert! - 9 hours 55 min ago
(Rockefeller University) Some take stress in stride; others struggle with it, even developing psychiatric disorders. New research at Rockefeller University has identified the molecular origins of this so-called stress gap in mice. The results could contribute to a better understanding of the development of depression and other disorders brought on by stress.
Categories: Eureka Alert!, General

Scientists call for investigation of mysterious cloud-like collections in cells

Biology News - Mon, 2014-09-01 20:25

About 50 years ago, electron microscopy revealed the presence of tiny blob-like structures that form inside cells, move around and disappear. But scientists still don't know what they do — even though these shifting cloud-like collections of proteins are believed to be crucial to the life of a cell, and therefore could offer a new approach to disease treatment.

Categories: Biology News, General

Memory in silent neurons

Biology News - Mon, 2014-09-01 20:25

When we learn, we associate a sensory experience either with other stimuli or with a certain type of behaviour. The neurons in the cerebral cortex that transmit the information modify the synaptic connections that they have with the other neurons. According to a generally-accepted model of synaptic plasticity, a neuron that communicates with others of the same kind emits an electrical impulse as well as activating its synapses transiently. This electrical pulse, combined with the signal received from other neurons, acts to stimulate the synapses. How is it that some neurons are caught up in the communication interplay even when they are barely connected? This is the crucial chicken-or-egg puzzle of synaptic plasticity that a team led by Anthony Holtmaat, professor in the Department of Basic Neurosciences in the Faculty of Medicine at UNIGE, is aiming to solve. The results of their research into memory in silent neurons can be found in the latest edition of Nature.

Categories: Biology News, General

NASA extends Mars rover and Moon orbiter missions

Nature Newsblog - Sat, 2014-08-30 11:44

A false-colour image of the Mars Opportunity rover, taken in March 2014.

NASA/JPL-Caltech/Cornell Univ./Arizona State Univ.

NASA is on the verge of releasing its long-awaited prioritization of planetary missions, meant to guide the agency if tight budgets force it to switch off an operating spacecraft. But two missions that had been considered on the verge of closure — the Mars Opportunity rover and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) — have each received a reprieve of another two years of operations, scientists close to the projects have confirmed.

Although NASA officials had insisted otherwise, Opportunity and LRO were considered particularly vulnerable because funding for them was included in a supplement to the White House’s annual budget request to Congress, rather than as part of the main planetary sciences division budget.

In a decade of operation, Opportunity has rolled more than 40.6 kilometres across Mars, exploring areas including the most ancient habitable environment known on the planet. The rover is suffering from several mechanical issues as well as problems with its flash memory that have triggered computer resets in recent weeks. Opportunity, which costs on the order of US$13 million annually, is heading for a region called Marathon Valley where scientists think clay minerals formed in a watery environment.

The LRO finished its main task in 2010: mapping possible  locations for astronauts to return to the Moon. More recently it has focused on studying change on the lunar surface, such as from fresh meteorite impacts.

The complete ‘senior review’, encompassing five other planetary missions, will be released at a planetary sciences advisory group meeting in Washington DC on 3 September.

Of the five other missions, two of them are big-ticket items — on the order of $60 million annually — that are considered shoo-ins for approval. The Curiosity rover landed on Mars two years ago and is still heading for its ultimate goal, a mountain named Mount Sharp. (The harsh rocks of Mars have taken a toll on Curiosity, however, and the rover recently had to backtrack out of a sandy valley so as not to get stuck, as well as give up on drilling what would have been its fourth hole on Mars.)

The Cassini mission has been orbiting Saturn since 2004, but as seasons change it has been observing new phenomena on the planet. “In many ways it’s a brand-new mission,” project scientist Linda Spilker, of NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, said earlier this month. Cassini engineers are planning for a ‘grand finale’ in 2017, when the probe will repeatedly dive between the gaseous planet and its ring system to make unprecedented close-up measurements. “It will be seven seconds of terror every 22 days,” Spilker said.

The three remaining missions under scrutiny are the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, which costs around $30 million annually and plays a crucial communications relay role at Mars; the 13-year-old Mars Odyssey orbiter, at $12 million annually; and a $3 million contribution for an instrument aboard the European Space Agency’s Mars Express spacecraft, launched in 2003.

Jim Green, head of NASA’s planetary sciences division, has said repeatedly that the agency will work within its budgetary constraints to try to fulfill the recommendations of the senior review panel. The big unknown is how much money the agency will have to spend for each of the extended missions. NASA typically allocates around $1.3 billion annually to planetary sciences, but Congress has yet to decide the numbers for fiscal year 2015, which begins on 1 October.

Categories: General, News

New book list, August 20, 2014

Ernst Mayr Library Blog - Thu, 2014-08-21 11:15

Birds and climate change: impacts and conservation responses.
By James W. Pearce-Higgins, Rhys E. Green. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2014. HOLLIS# 014117392
QL698.95.P43 2014

Climate change adaptation in Africa: an historical ecology.
By Gufu Oba. Abingdon, Oxon; New York, NY: Routledge, 2014. HOLLIS# 014117419
SF55.H67 O43 2014

Coastal conservation.
Edited by Brooke Maslo and Julie L. Lockwood, Rutgers University, New Jersey, USA. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2014. HOLLIS# 014117424
QH541.5.C65 C5485 2014

Collaborative partnerships in transboundary wildlife management: a review of southern African experiences.
By Solomon Mombeshora. Harare, Zimbabwe: Regional Office for Southern Africa, IUCN, The World Conservation Union, 2005. HOLLIS# 010205332
SK575.S55 M66 2005

Endangered elephants: past, present, and future: Symposium on Human-Elephant Relationships and Conflicts, Sri Lanka, September 2003.
Editor, Jayantha Jayewardene. Rajagiriya: Biodiversity and Elephant Conservation Trust, 2004. HOLLIS# 010296666
QL737.P98 S98 2004

Fish chemosenses.
Editors, Klaus Reutter, B.G. Kapoor. Enfield, NH: Science Publishers, c2005. HOLLIS# 009795725
QL639.1.F5524 2005

Foundations of fisheries science.
Edited by Greg G. Sass, Micheal S. Allen; section edited by Robert Arlinghaus [and four others]. Bethesda, Maryland: American Fisheries Society, 2014. HOLLIS# 014122140
SH328.F68 2014

Handbook of Western Australian birds. Volume 2: Passerines (Blue-winged Pitta to Goldfinch).
By R.E. Johnstone and G.M. Storr, edited by Deborah Louise Taylor. Perth, W.A.: Western Australian Museum, 1998- . HOLLIS# 007975815
QL693.J655 1998 v. 2

Handbook on the economics of ecosystem services and biodiversity.
Edited by Paulo A.L.D. Nunes, Pushpam Kumar, Tom Dedeurwaerdere. Cheltenham, UK; Northampton, MA, USA: Edward Elgar, [2014]. HOLLIS# 014122147
QH541.15.E25 H25 2014

Indian birds.
By R. K. Gaur. New Delhi: Brijbasi Printers, 1994. HOLLIS# 010296659
QL691.I4 G38 1994

Inseklopedie van Suider-Afrika.
By Erik Holm. Pretoria: LAPA Uitgewers, 2008. HOLLIS# 012041994
QL485.S6 H65 2008

Mamíferos de España.
[By] Juan Carlos Blanco; prólogo de Miguel Delibes de Castro. 1. ed. Barcelona: Planeta, 1998. HOLLIS# 008190988
QL728.S7 B485 1998 v. 1-2

Quantitative genetics in the wild.
Edited by Anne Charmantier, Dany Garant, Loeske E.B. Kruuk. 1st ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014. HOLLIS# 014122167
QH432.Q36 2014

Rare and endangered plants and animals of Gujarat, February 2003: as part of the Project Conservation of Rare and Endangered Biodiversity of Gujarat.
Vadodara: Gujarat Ecology Society, 2003. HOLLIS# 010296691
QK86.I4 R37 2003

Salmonid spawning habitat in rivers: physical controls, biological responses, and approaches to remediation.
Edited by David A. Sear and Paul DeVries. Bethesda, Md.: American Fisheries Society, 2008. HOLLIS# 012316469
SH167.S18 S3 2008

Shark nursery grounds of the Gulf of Mexico and the East Coast waters of the United States.
Edited by Camilla T. McCandless, Nancy E. Kohler, and Harold L. Pratt, Jr. Bethesda, Md.: American Fisheries Society, 2007. HOLLIS# 012514564
QL638.9.S4537 2007

Spezielle Zoologie. [Teil. 1], Einzeller und wirbellose Tiere.
[Editors], Wilfried Westheide und Reinhard RiegerEinzeller und wirbellose Tiere3rd ed. Berlin; Heidelberg :Springer Spektrum, 2013. HOLLIS# 014137379
QL362.E36 2013 [Teil 1]

Teleosts: evolutionary development, diversity and behavioral ecology.
Skylar Carone, editor. Hauppauge, New York: Nova Science Publisher’s, Inc., [2014]. HOLLIS# 014122188
QL618.2.T45 2014

Wetland conservation in Sri Lanka: proceedings of the National Symposium on Wetland Conservation and Management: June 19th and 20th, 2003, IUCN-The World Conservation Union, Sri Lanka Country Office.

Colombo: IUCN, Sri Lanka, c2004. HOLLIS# 010296670
QH77.S72 N37 2003

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